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Friday, June 18, 2010

Davening on Shabbos That Coincides with Yom Tov or Rosh Chodesh

What happens if on Yom Tov one mixes up the end of the blessing in Shemoneh Esrei , and in place of saying Mekadeish Hashabbos Veyisrael Vehazmanim, he says Mekadeish Hashabbos, or vice versa?

There is a three way dispute (Beitzah 17) regarding the proper format of Shemoneh Esrei on Yom Tov that falls on Shabbos.

According to Beis Shamai a totally new beracha is added for Yom Tov
According to Beis Hillel Yom Tov is incorporated into the middle part of the regular Shabbos blessing
Rebbi agrees with Beis Hillel, and adds that Yom Tov is also included in the closing blessing – Mekadeish Hashabbos Veyisrael Vehazmanim.
The Halacha is like Rebbi.

Now, if one forgot to mention Shabbos in the ending beracha and concluded ‘Mekadeish Yisrael Vihazmanim’ we run into a dispute of the poskim:
The kenesses hagedola rules that one does not have to repeat Shemoneh Esrei

The Pri Chadash (OC 487) argues and since that if one changes the way that one is supposed to make a beracha (matbeah shetovu chachamim) they do not fulfill their obligation and still have to repeat Shemoneh Esrei. Therefore whether Shabbos was omitted or Yom Tov was omitted in the closing beracha, one has to repeat Shemoneh Esrei. 

The Biur Halacha (487) writes as follows: if one doesn’t mention Shabbos in the closing then they have to repeat Shemoneh Esrei, but if one omits Yom Tov they do not. His rationale is that even though the Halacha is like Rebbi that one must incorporate Yom Tov into the closing, Rebbi still agrees with Beis Hillel that the primary beracha (the matbeah) is Mekadeish Hashabbos.

Therefore even if one omits the mention of Yom Tov they haven’t changed the primary blessing and therefore it doesn’t necessitate repeating Shemoneh Esrei. However if they omit Shabbos they have changed the original matbeah of the beracha and must repeat Shemoneh Esrei.
Rav Akiva Eiger, quoted by the Aruch Hashulchan holds that even if one does mention Yom Tov in the blessing but omitted its mention in the middle of the paragraph, he must repeat the Amidah, and that is the ruling of the Aruch Hashulchan himself.

When Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, in place of the regular ‘Tikanta Shabbos’ prayer in the Mussaf Amidah, we say ‘Ata Yitzarta’ which incorporates the prayers of Rosh Chodesh and the special Mussaf sacrifice into the regular Shemoneh Esrei. We then conclude with ‘Mekadeish Hashabbos Veyisrael Veroshei Chodashim.

What if one closed out with the usual Mekadeish Hashabbos? Here Rosh Chodesh differs from Yom Tov. Even according to the Pri Chadash who holds that on Yom Tov if one concludes with Mekadeish Hashabbos they must repeat the Mussaf, on Rosh Chodesh he does not. He extends this as far as Shabbos Chol Hamoed, if one said the usual Shabbos Mussaf he does not repeat the Amidah.

The Pri Chadash explains: On Rosh Chodesh and Chol Hamoed there is no added blessing for the occasion, rather whenever we pray we are supposed to incorporate it into our regular Shemoneh Esrei. If forgotten we still fulfilled our prayer obligation. On Yom Tov we fundamentally change the Amidah to reflect the holiday, and if that change is not incorporated it is considered changing the blessing from the way it was coined and one cannot fulfill their obligation.

The Aruch Hashulchan (425:1) argues with the Pri Chadash, and writes that whereas the main thing is the blessing at the end, if he omits it then he must repeat the Shemoneh Esrei.

Posted on 06/18 at 02:14 AM • Permalink
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Meet Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Haber

Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch HaberRabbi Tzvi Hirsch Haber is sought after by all who know him for his Halachic and practical advice. His keen ability to put complicated matters into a digestible perspective coupled with his ability to get the facts, make him the perfect blogger to help us all “Do It Right”.

A native of Buffalo, NY, Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Haber spent his childhood globetrotting with his family. His pioneering spirit first surfaced in Melbourne, Australia, where he was excited to be a member of the opening class of Mesivta Bnei Torah. From Australia the Haber family settled down in Monsey, NY. Ever the maverick, Tzvi promptly left home to study in Yeshiva Ohr Hameir in Peekskill, where he became a mainstay of the Yeshiva, and inspired his younger brothers as well as several friends from the Mesivta in Melbourne to follow him. He then joined his chaburah in Jerusalem, first at the Mir Yeshiva and then at the Bais Medrash of Rav Dovid Soloveitchik, a senior scion of the famed Brisk dynasty. As his globetrotting family returned to Jerusalem, Tzvi returned to the US, to freeze in the famed, yet comparatively chilled Beth Medrash Govoha of Lakewood.

 In 2004 he met his wife, Suzanne Schor, a native of the warmer Los Angeles climate, and the couple settled in Lakewood, where he focused his pioneering and independent strengths on the study of Halacha, or Jewish law. His innovative spirit and innate ability to help others seeking to clarify the finer points of Judaism and integrate them into their daily lives inspired his decision to commute daily from Lakewood to the Lower East Side of Manhattan in order to bask in the day to day exposure to the world renowned Posek, HaRav David Feinstein. The daily commute was more than compensated for when he received Semicha from Rav Feinstien and the Kollel L’Torah U’lhorah (a division of Mesivta Tifereth Jerusalem) in Tamuz 5768, June 2008.

In August 2009, the Habers moved west, heading toward Los Angeles where Rabbi Haber joined the LINK-LA Kollel. After being an active member of the Kollel for several years, he joined the business world, however he is still actively involved in teaching and learning in LA.

Actively involved in all aspects of TorahLab, Tzvi has taken upon himself a quasi-role as administrator of quality control and has effectively improved and upgraded many of the smaller yet vital details involved in our site. His advice is eagerly sought and gracefully given.

Rabbi Haber is now living in the La Brea section of Los Angeles with his wonderful family. He can be contacted at tzvi@torahlab.org